Rothamsted Met Data Monthly Updates

Part of experiment rms

Rothamsted Met Data Monthly & Annual Summaries


April 2024: April was warm and wet with below average sunshine.

Rainfall was 67.4 mm, which is 13.45 mm above average. We had 19 days with 0.2 mm or more of rain with 2 days greater than 5 mm. The wettest day was the 27th with 26.9 mm.

The average maximum air temperature was just below average at 13.3 °C (-0.08 °C) and average minimum air temperature was above average with 6.0 ºC (+1.56 °C). The warmest day was the 12th which reached 20.0 ºC, and the coldest night was on the 25th with 0.7 ºC.

Sunshine was below average with 156.4 hours (-15.66 hours); the most was 9.8 hours on the 18th. There was 1 day without sunshine.

We had 0 air frosts and 4 ground frosts.

Note: The average refers to the 30 year means 1991-2020.


March 2024: March was warm and wet with below average sunshine.

Rainfall was above average with 90.0 mm recorded, (+42.93 mm). We had 19 days with 0.2 mm or more of rain, and 8 days with more than 5 mm. The most recorded was 14.6 mm on the 1st.

The mean maximum and minimum temperatures were above average at 11.4°C (+1.18) and 4.8°C (+1.98) respectively. The highest maximum temperature was 16.1°C on the 14th and the lowest minimum was -2.2°C on the 4th. The average minimum was the 4th highest in our records which in turn made the overall average temperature the 4th highest in our records (since 1878).

Sunshine was below average with 106.1 hrs (-22.26); the most recorded was 9.0 hours on the 30th. There were 3 days without sunshine.

We had 2 air frosts and 9 ground frosts of which 1 dropped below -6.0 °C.

Note: The average refers to the 30 year means 1991-2020.


February 2024: February was very warm and wet with below average sunshine.

Rainfall was above average with 130.0 mm (+73.03). We had 21 days with over 0.2 mm, and 7 days with more than 5.0 mm. The greatest rainfall was 26.7 mm on the 8th. This February is the 2nd wettest on record since records began in 1853.

The mean maximum and minimum temperatures were above average with 10.6ºC (+3.07), second highest on record, and 4.7ºC (+3.21), the highest on record, respectively. Making this February the warmest since records began in 1878. The highest maximum was 16.1ºC on the 15th, and the lowest minimum was -2.0ºC on the 25th.

Sunshine was below average with 63.7 hrs. (-22.46). We had 2 days without any sunshine and the most was 7.4 hrs on the 1st.

We had 4 air frosts and 9 ground frosts.

Note: The average refers to the 30 year means 1991-2020.


January 2024: January at Rothamsted was particularly Sunny along with slightly below average rainfall and temperatures.

Rainfall was below average with 72.6 mm (-1.55 mm). We had 15 days with 0.2 mm or more of rain and 5 had more than 5.0 mm. The most on one day was 19.9 mm recorded on the 4th. Precipitation fell as sleet/snow during showers on 8th.

The mean maximum and minimum temperatureswere below average with 7.0°C (-0.06°C) and 1.5 °C (-0.05°C) respectively. The warmest day reached 12.7 °C on the 23rd and the coldest temperature was -5.2°C on the 18th.

Sunshine was above average with 83.6 hours (+19.73 hours); the most was 7.1 hours on the 26th. We had 3 days with no sunshine. January was the 8th sunniest in our records (began 1891).

We had 11 air frosts and 16 ground frosts of which 5 were below -6.0 °.

Note: The average refers to the 30 year means 1991-2020.


Weather Summary for Harpenden, 2023. The year 2023 was warm, wet and sunny.

Rainfall.

2023 had above average rainfall with 818.6 mm recorded; the annual average is 763.5 mm. It rained (0.2 mm or more) on 206 days. The most on one day was 34.0 mm on September 20th. The wettest month was March with 117.2 mm. The driest month was February with 5.7 mm. Five months had below average rainfall. Precipitation fell as snow during wintry showers from 7th to 10th March with snow settling on ground for a brief period on 8th March.

Temperature.

The overall mean air temperature for the year was above average at 11.1 °C (The annual average is 10.23 °C). This makes 2023 the third warmest year since our records began in 1878. The mean maximum air temperature was above average at 15.1 ºC (+1.1 °C). The mean minimum air temperature was above average at 7.1 °C (+0.7 °C). The hottest day was on September 9th reaching 30.9 °C. The coldest night was on January 23rd which dropped to -6.6 °C. We had 38 air frosts and 84 ground frosts, of which 21 were below -6 °C.

Sunshine.

2023 was a sunny year with 1730.5 hours of sunshine (78.0 hours above the annual average). June was the ‘sunniest’ month with 250.1 hours. Of the twelve months four had below average sunshine which included July and August.

Note: The average refers to the 30 year means 1991-2020.


December 2023: The month of December was wet, warm and sunny.

Rainfall was 101.3 mm, which is 25.7 mm above average. We had 26 days where at least 0.2 mm of rain was recorded, 8 of these with at least 5 mm. The most was 12.7 mm on the 3rd.

The mean maximum and minimum temperatures were above average at 9.4°C (+2.04) and 4.6 °C (+2.62) respectively. The highest maximum temperature was 13.8 °C on the 24th and the lowest minimum was -3.4 °C on the 3rd.

Sunshine was 37.6 hrs, which is 23.22 hrs below average. The most sunshine was 5.2 hours on the 6th. We had 12 days with no sunshine recorded.

We had 5 air frosts and 10 ground frosts, of which 1 was below -6 °C.

Note: The average refers to the 30 year means 1991-2020.


November 2023: November was mainly warm, except for last week of month when it turned colder, sunnier and drier than average.

Rainfall was 75.6 mm which is 5.56 mm below average. We had 21 days with 0.2 mm or more of rain, and 5 days with over 5 mm. The most was 16.6 mm on the 1st.

The mean maximum air temperature was above average with 10.3 °C (+0.19 °C) and the mean minimum air temperature was below average with 4.0 °C (-0.29 °C). The highest maximum was 15.2 °C on the 13th and the lowest minimum was -3.2 °C on the 30th.

Sunshine was above average with 85.4 hours (+13.20 hours); the most was 7.3 hours on the 6th. There were 2 days without sunshine.

We had 5 air frosts and 12 ground frosts of which 1 was below -6.0 °C.

Note: The average refers to the 30 year means 1991-2020.


October 2023: The month of October was wet, warm and sunny.

Rainfall was 117.2 mm, which is 43.18 mm above average. We had 17 days with 0.2 mm or more of rain and 6 days with over 5 mm. The most was 26.4 mm on the 13th.

The mean maximum and minimum air temperatures were above average at 17.0 °C (+2.32°C) and 8.8°C (+1.54 °C) respectively. The highest (daytime) temperature was 25.2 ºC on the 9th. The lowest (night) temperature was -1.3 ºC on the 16th.

Sunshine was 127.2 hrs which is 16.68 hrs above average. There were 3 days without sunshine and the most recorded was 8.8 hours on the 15th.

There were 5 ground frosts and 1 air frost recorded.

Note: The average refers to the 30 year means 1991-2020.


September 2023: The month of September was very warm and sunny with slightly above average rainfall.

Rainfall was 60.3 mm, which is 2.53 mm above average. We had 11 days with 0.2 mm or more of rain and 3 days with over 5 mm. The most was 34.0 mm on the 20th.

The mean maximum and minimum air temperatures were above average at 22.5 °C (+3.98 °C) and 13.0 °C (+2.79 °C) respectively. The highest (daytime) temperature was 30.9 ºC on the 9th, the fourth highest on record. The lowest (night) temperature was 7.8 ºC on the 30th, also the fourth highest on record. The mean maximum air temperature and the mean minimum air temperatures were the highest and second highest, respectively, since records began in 1878. Resulting in the warmest September on record with a daily mean air temperature of 17.7°C.

Sunshine was 181.6 hrs which is 30.92 hrs above average. There was sunshine on every day and the most recorded was 11.3 hours on the 5th.

There were no air frosts and no ground frosts.

Note: The average refers to the 30 year means 1991-2020.


August 2023: August was mainly dry with below average sunshine and air temperature.

Rainfall was below average with 50.5 mm (-21.49 mm). We had 16 days with 0.2 mm or more of rain, of which 3 days had more than 5.0 mm; the most was 9.7 mm on the 2nd.

The mean maximum and minimum air temperatures were below average with 21.2 ºC (-0.45 °C) and 12.2 ºC (-0.07 °C) respectively. The highest temperature was 25.3 ºC on the 10th. The lowest temperature was 9.1 ºC on the 31st.

Sunshine was below average with 182.9 hours (-6.51 hours). There were 0 days without sun and the sunniest day was the 10th with 11.9 hours.

There were no air frosts and no ground frosts.

Note: The average refers to the 30 year means 1991-2020.


July 2023: July was was cool, wet and particularly overcast.

Rainfall was 97.8 mm, which is 42.31 mm above average. We had 21 days with 0.2 mm or more of rain and 5 days with more than 5 mm. The greatest rainfall was 19.0 mm recorded on the 14th.

The average maximum and minimum air temperatures were below average at 20.9 °C (-1.10 °C) and 12.2 °C (-0.11 °C) respectively. The hottest day was the 7th reaching 28.2 ºC. The lowest minimum air temperature was 8.3 ºC on the 6th.

Sunshine was below average with 181.3 hrs (-25.49 hours). The most was 14.1 hours on the 7th and there was only 1 day when the sun didn’t shine.

There were no air frosts and no ground frosts.

Note: The average refers to the 30 year means 1991-2020.


June 2023: June was warmer, drier and sunnier than average.

Rainfall was 16.0 mm, which is 38.86 mm below average. We had 7 days with 0.2 mm or more of rain, of which 1 day had more than 5.0 mm. The most rainfall in a single day was 8.7 mm collected on the 28th).

The mean maximum air temperature and mean minimum air temperature were above average at 23.3ºC (+3.78 °C) and 11.2 ºC (+1.02 °C) respectively. The hottest day reached 29.8 ºC on the 25th. The coolest night was 6.6ºC on the 3rd. The mean daily air temperature of 17.3°C for June was the warmest on record.

Sunshine was 250.1 hours, which is 44.32 hours above average. There were 0 days without sun.

There were 0 air frosts and 0 ground frosts.

Note: The average refers to the 30 year means 1991-2020.


May 2023: May was warmer and drier than average with above average sunshine.

Rainfall was 48.9 mm, which is 4.38 mm below average. We had 11 days with 0.2 mm or more of rain, of which 4 days had more than 5.0 mm. The greatest fall of rain was 14.5 mm on the 8th).

The mean maximum and minimum temperatures were above average at 16.6 ºC (+0.07 °C) and 7.7 ºC (+0.40 °C) respectively. The highest temperature was 20.7 ºC on the 28th and the lowest temperature was 2.9 ºC on the 3rd.

Sunshine was above average with 211.6 hrs. (+8.25 hrs); the most was 13.1 hours on the 26th. There was 1 day without sunshine.

We had 0 air frost and 5 ground frosts.

Note: The average refers to the 30 year means 1991-2020.


April 2023: April was sunny but wet with below average temperatures.

Rainfall was 65.0 mm, which is 11.05 mm above average. We had 16 days with 0.2 mm or more of rain. The wettest day was the 12th with 9.7 mm which fell partly as hail and was part of an afternoon thunderstorm).

The average maximum and minimum temperatures were below average with 13.0 ºC (-0.41°C) and 4.0 °C (-0.47°C) respectively. The warmest day was the 29th which reached 17.7 ºC, and the coldest night was on the 4th when it dropped to -1.8 ºC.

Sunshine was above average with 176.3 hours (+4.24 hours); the most was 11.5 hours on the 4th and there were zero days without sunshine.

We had 1 air frost and 12 ground frosts of which 1 day dropped to below -6.0 °C.

Note: The average refers to the 30 year means 1991-2020.


March 2023: March was very wet with below average sunshine and slightly above average temperatures.

Rainfall was above average with 117.2 mm recorded, (+70.09 mm). We had 25 days with 0.2 mm or more of rain, and 7 days with more than 5 mm. The most recorded was 17.8 mm on the 31st. March 2023 is notable as the 4th wettest March in our records (since 1853).

The mean maximum temperature was below average at 9.8ºC (-0.45) and the mean minimum was above average at 3.7ºC (+0.82) respectively. The highest maximum temperature was 15.0ºC on the 30th and the lowest minimum was -4.0ºC on the 11th.

Sunshine was below average with 89.9 hrs (-38.49); the most recorded was 7.8 hours on the 2nd. There were 3 days without sunshine.

We had 5 air frosts and 11 ground frosts of which 3 days were below -6.0 C.

Note: The average refers to the 30 year means 1991-2020.


February 2023: February was warm and especially dry, with above average sunshine.

Rainfall was below average with 5.7 mm (-51.29). We had 11 days with over 0.2 mm, and 0 days with more than 5.0 mm. The greatest rainfall was 2.0 mm on the 22nd. This February is the 6th driest on record since records began in 1853.

The mean maximum and mean minimum temperatures were above average with 9.6ºC (+2.04) and 2.2ºC (+0.69) respectively. The highest maximum was 14.5ºC on the 17th, and the lowest minimum was -5.8ºC on the 8th.

Sunshine was above average with 110.3 hrs. (+24.16). We had 4 days without any sunshine and the most was 8.0 hrs on the 13th.

We had 10 air frosts and 13 ground frosts of which 6 were below -6.0 .

Note: The average refers to the 30 year means 1991-2020.


January 2023: January was warm, wet and especially sunny.

Rainfall was above average with 79.6 mm (+5.47 mm). We had 22 days with 0.2 mm or more of rain and 5 had more than 5.0 mm. The most on one day was 11.9 mm recorded on the 11th.

January’s mean maximum and minimum temperatures were above average with 8.0 ºC (+0.94 ºC) and 1.3 ºC (-0.30ºC) respectively. The warmest day reached 12.5 ºC on the 4th and the coldest temperature was -6.6 ºC on the 23rd.

Sunshine was well above average with 88.1 hours (+24.21 hours); the most was 6.8 hours on the 21st. We had 3 days with no sunshine. January was the 3rd sunniest in our records (began 1891).

We had 11 air frosts and 17 ground frosts of which 9 were below -6.0 C.

Note: The average refers to the 30 year means 1991-2020.


Weather Summary for Harpenden, 2022: The year 2022 was warm, dry and very sunny.

Rainfall:

2022 had below average rainfall with 666.7 mm recorded; the annual average is 763.5 mm. It rained (0.2 mm or more) on 167 days. The most on one day was 30.7 mm on 23rd of October. The wettest month was November with 131.7mm. The driest month was July with 11.7 mm. Of the twelve months, eight had below average rainfall. Some of the recorded rainfall fell as snow and some as hail with hail being observed on the 23rd of November. There was very little snow of note during the first part of the year and not enough to settle. But in December there was a significant snowfall overnight on the 11th/12th and due to the freezing temperatures at that time, this remained for 7 days.

Temperature:

The overall mean air temperature for the year was above average at 11.2 ºC (The annual average is 10.2 ºC). This makes 2022 the joint warmest year, with 2014, since our records began in 1878. The mean maximum air temperature was above average at 15.5 ºC (+1.5 ºC). The mean minimum air temperature was above average at 6.9 ºC (+0.5 ºC). The hottest day was the 19th of July reaching 38.4 ºC which is the highest maximum temperature recorded at Rothamsted (since 1878). The coldest night was the 15th of December which dropped to -9.0 ºC.

Sunshine:

2022 was a very sunny year with 1912.5 hours of sunshine (259.9 hours above the annual average). This makes 2022 the second sunniest year on record with 2020 being the sunniest. July was the ‘sunniest’ month with 254.5 hours. Of the twelve months only May and September had below average sunshine.

We had 36 air frosts and 109 ground frosts, of which 16 were below -6 ºC.

Note: The average refers to the 30 year means 1991-2020.


December 2022: December was relatively cool, dry and sunny. There was a period of freezing temperatures from the 7th to the 19th along with snow fall on the night of the 11th which settled and lasted for 7 days.

Rainfall was 67.9 mm, which is 7.7 mm below average. We had 16 days where at least 0.2 mm of rain was recorded, 6 of these with at least 5 mm. The most was 10.7 mm on the 31st.

December had below average mean maximum and minimum temperatures with 6.4 ºC (-0.97) and 0.1ºC (-1.90) respectively. The highest maximum temperature was 12.6 ºC on the 30th and the lowest minimum was -9 ºC on the 15th.

Sunshine was 10.58 hrs above average with 71.4 hrs. The most sunshine was 6 hours on the 8th. We had 8 days with no sunshine recorded.

We had 13 air frosts and 21 ground frosts, of which 4 were below -6 C.

Note: The average refers to the 30 year means 1991-2020.


November 2022: November was sunny, wet and warm.

Rainfall was 131.7 mm which is 50.46 mm above average. We had 24 days with 0.2 mm or more of rain, and 7 days with over 5 mm. The most was 24.6 mm on the 2nd. Hail was observed on morning of 23rd.

The maximum and minimum mean air temperatures were both above average with 11.8 ºC (+1.69 ºC) and 6.5 ºC (+2.24 ºC) respectively. The warmest day reached 15.4 ºC on the 12th and the lowest minimum was 1.1 ºC on the 21st.

Sunshine was above average with 77.0 hours (+4.77 hours); the most was 6.6 hours on the 4th. There were 4 days without sunshine.

There were 5 ground frosts.

Note: The average refers to the 30 year means 1991-2020.


October 2022: October was particularly warm and sunny, with above average rainfall. Most of the rain fell during the second half of the month with the wettest day being accompanied by a thunderstorm on the night of the 23rd.

Rainfall was 101.0 mm which is 19.68 mm above average. We had 18 days with 0.2 mm or more of rain and 7 with over 5.0 mm. The greatest fall was 30.7 mm which fell on the 23rd.

The mean maximum and minimum temperatures were above average with 16.8 ºC (+2.51) and 9.2 ºC (+1.62) respectively. The highest temperature was 21.0 ºC on the 29th and the lowest was 2.6 ºC on the 11th. It was the 5th warmest October since our temperature records began in 1878.

Sunshine was above average with 147.6 hrs (average for October is 113.0); the most was 9.3 hours on the 8th. There were no days without sunshine and October ranked as 7th sunniest since our records began in 1890.

There were 5 ground frosts.

Note: The average refers to the 30 year means 1991-2020.


September 2022: The month of September was relatively cloudy and wet with close to average air temperatures.

Rainfall was 77.9 mm, which is 20.14 mm above average. We had 16 days with 0.2 mm or more of rain and 5 days with over 5 mm. The most was 14.3 mm on the 30th.

The mean maximum temperature was below average at 18.5 ºC (-0.05 ºC) and the mean minimum was above average at 10.6 ºC (+0.42 ºC). The highest (daytime) temperature was 24.7 ºC on the 12th. The lowest (night) temperature was 4.5 ºC on the 29th.

Sunshine was 127 hrs which is 23.73 hrs below average. There was sunshine on every day and the most recorded was 11.1 hours on the 17th.

There were 4 ground frosts recordeds.

Note: The average refers to the 30 year means 1991-2020.


August 2022: August was mainly dry, sunny and the warmest August on record.

Rainfall was below average with 41.4 mm (-30.58 mm). We had 5 days with 0.2 mm or more of rain, of which 2 days had more than 5.0 mm; the most was 21.6 mm on the 24th.

The mean maximum and minimum air temperatures were above average with 25.2 ºC (+3.55 ºC), highest on record, and 13.9 ºC (+1.62 ºC) respectively. The highest temperature was 32.3 ºC on the 13th. The lowest temperature was 8.9 ºC on the 7th.

Sunshine was above average with 245.6 hours (+56.19 hours). There were 0 days without sun and the sunniest day was the 7th with 13.3 hours.

There were no frosts.

Note: The average refers to the 30 year means 1991-2020.


July 2022: The month of July was very warm, dry and sunny.

Rainfall was 11.7 mm, which is 43.74 mm below average. We had 5 days with 0.2 mm or more of rain with 1 day having more than 5 mm. The greatest rainfall was 5.5 mm recorded on the 20th.

The average maximum and minimum air temperatures were above average at 24.9 ºC (+2.93 ºC) and 13.1 ºC (+0.79 ºC) respectively. The hottest day was the 19th reaching 38.4 ºC. This is the highest maximum temperature recorded since records began in 1878. Previous record was 36.7 ºC on 25th July 2019. The lowest minimum air temperature was 8.3 ºC on the 5th.

Sunshine was above average with 254.5 hrs (+47.68 hours). The most was 14.2 hours on the 10th and there was 0 days where no sunshine was recorded.

We had no air or ground frosts.

Note: The average refers to the 30 year means 1991-2020.


June 2022: June was warmer, drier and sunnier than average.

Rainfall was 43.8 mm, which is 10.99 mm below average. We had 13 days with 0.2 mm or more of rain, of which 3 days had more than 5.0 mm. The most rainfall in a single day was 19.2 mm collected on the 4th.

The mean maximum air temperature was above average at 20.8 ºC (+1.29 ºC). The mean minimum air temperature was below average at 10.0 ºC (-0.20 ºC). The hottest day reached 30.7 ºC on the 17th. The coolest night was 5.1 ºC on the 2nd.

Sunshine was 253.6 hours, which is 47.85 hours above average. There was 1 day without sun.

There were 0 air frosts and 2 ground frosts.

Note: The average refers to the 30 year means 1991-2020.


May 2022: May was warmer and drier than average with just below average sunshine.

Rainfall was 33.9 mm, which is 19.33 mm below average. We had 14 days with 0.2 mm or more of rain, of which 1 day had more than 1.0 mm. The greatest fall of rain was 5.3 mm on the 30th of May.

The average maximum and minimum temperatures were above average at 17.9 ºC (+1.42 ºC) and 8.4 ºC (+1.06 ºC) respectively. The highest (max) temperature was 24.6 ºC on the 17th and the lowest (min) temperature was 3.3ºC on the night of the 9th.

Sunshine was below average with 195.1 hrs. (-8.24 hrs); the most was 12.8 hours on the 27th. There were 0 days without sunshine.

We had 0 air frost and 4 ground frosts.

Note: The average refers to the 30 year means 1991-2020.


April 2022: April was sunny and dry along with close to average temperatures.

Rainfall was 20.8 mm, which is 33.19 mm below average. We had 8 days with 0.2 mm or more of rain. The wettest day was the 6th with 9.3 mm.

The average maximum temperature was above average at 14.2 ºC (+0.78ºC); while the average minimum was below average at 4.1 ºC (-0.41ºC). The warmest day was the 15th which reached 21.2 ºC, and the coldest night was on the 3rd when it dropped to -3.0ºC.

Sunshine was above average with 197.5 hours (+25.44 hours); the most was 12.0 hours on the 21st and there were 2 days without sunshine..

We had 5 air frosts and 15 ground frosts.

Note: The average refers to the 30 year means 1991-2020.


March 2022: March was especially sunny along with above average temperatures and below average rainfall. There were wintery showers during a cold spell at the end of the month.

Rainfall was below average with 34.1 mm recorded, (-12.93 mm). We had 13 days with 0.2 mm or more of rain, and 2 days with more than 5 mm. The most recorded was 14.7 mm on the 16th. There were snow and hail showers throughout the 31st.

The mean maximum and minimum temperatures were above average with 11.8ºC (+1.50) and 3.4ºC (+0.58) respectively. The highest maximum temperature was 18.7ºC on the 23rdand the lowest minimum was -2.0ºC on the 21st.

Sunshine was above average with 167.0 hrs (+38.58); the most recorded was 11 hours on the 26th. There were 5 days without sunshine.

We had 3 air frosts and 16 ground frosts.

Note: The average refers to the 30 year means 1991-2020.


February 2022: February was relatively warm and wet and had above average sunshine.

Rainfall was above average with 79.0 mm (+22.04). We had 19 days with over 0.2 mm, and 7 days with more than 5.0 mm. The greatest rainfall was 13.9 mm on the 13th. Precipitation fell as sleet and snow on the 4th and there were sleet, snow, and hail showers on 24th.

The mean maximum and the mean minimum temperatures were above average with 9.9 ºC (+2.36) and 3.0 ºC (+1.50) respectively. The lowest minimum was -0.6 ºC on the 26th, and the highest maximum was 14.1 ºC on the 24th. February 2022 was the 8th warmest February since our records began in 1878.

Sunshine was above average with 90.0 hrs. (+3.82). We had 3 days without any sunshine and the most was 9.3 hrs on the 27th.

We had 2 air frosts and 14 ground frosts of which 2 were below -6.0 ºC.

Note: The average refers to the 30 year means 1991-2020.


January 2022: January was especially dry and sunny with close to the average temperatures.

Rainfall was well below average with 23.4 mm (-50.69 mm). We had 16 days with 0.2 mm or more of rain and 2 had more than 5.0 mm. The most on one day was 6.5 mm recorded on the 2nd.

The mean maximum temperature was above average at 7.6 ºC (+0.53 ºC) and the minimum was below average at 0.8 ºC (-0.74 ºC). The warmest day reached 13.6 ºC on the 1st and the coldest temperature was -5.0 ºC on the 6th.

Sunshine was well above average with 86.3 hours (+22.40 hours); the most was 7.3 hours on the 31st. We had 7 days with no sunshine. January was the 5th sunniest in our records (began 1891).

We had 13 air frosts and 19 ground frosts of which 7 were below -6.0 ºC.

Note: The average refers to the 30 year means 1991-2020.


December 2021: December was warm for the time of year with above average rainfall and below average sunshine.

Rainfall was 76.2 mm, which is 0.58 mm above average. We had 24 days where at least 0.2 mm of rain was recorded, 5 of these with at least 5 mm. The most was 20.8 mm on the 24h.

There were above average mean maximum and minimum temperatures. The mean maximum was 8.6 ºC (+1.16) and the mean minimum was 3.9ºC (+1.94). The highest maximum temperature was 14.2ºC on the 29th and the lowest minimum was -2.5ºC on the 22nd.

Sunshine was below average with 23.5 hrs which is 37.31 hrs below average. The most sunshine was 5.8 hours on the 2nd. We had 14 days with no sunshine recorded.

We had 5 air frosts and 9 ground frosts.

Note: The average refers to the 30 year means 1991-2020.


November 2021: November was sunny, cold and noticeably dry.

Rainfall was 19.2 mm which is 62.02 mm below average. We had 16 days with 0.2 mm or more of rain, and 1 day with over 5 mm. The most was 6.7 mm on the 26th. Precipitation fell as snow on 28th.

The maximum and minimum mean air temperatures were both below average with 10.0 ºC (-0.07 ºC) and 3.9 ºC (-0.37 ºC) respectively. The warmest day reached 14.7 ºC on the 9th and the lowest minimum was -2.6 ºC on the 29th.

Sunshine was above average with 82.1 hours (+9.89 hours); the most was 7.7 hours on the 1st. There were 5 days without sunshine.

There were four ground frosts.

Note: The average refers to the 30 year means 1991-2020.


October 2021: October was relatively cloudy, mild and wet for the time of year.

Rainfall was 104.8 mm which is 23.51 mm above average. We had 17 days with 0.2 mm or more of rain and 6 with over 5.0 mm. The greatest rainfall was 23.0 mm which fell on the 20th.

The October mean maximum and minimum temperatures were above average with 15.2 ºC (+0.94) and 8.6 ºC (+1.01) respectively. The highest temperature was 19.3 ºC on the 19th and the lowest was 3.7 ºC on the 22nd.

Sunshine was below average with 95.1 hrs (-17.97 hours); the most was 7.9 hours on the 6th. There was 1 day without sunshine.

There were four ground frosts.

Note: The average refers to the 30 year means 1991-2020.


September 2021: The month of September was warm and dull with below average rainfall.

Rainfall was 54.1 mm, which is 3.60 mm below average. We had 11 days with 0.2 mm or more of rain and 4 days with over 5 mm. The most was 24.2 mm on the 28th.

The mean maximum The mean maximum and minimum temperatures were above average at 20.6 ºC (+2.08 ºC) and 11.5 ºC (+1.32 ºC) respectively. The highest (daytime) temperature was 27.9 ºC on the 7th. The lowest (night) temperature was 4.6 ºC on the 30th.

Sunshine was 136.2 hrs which is 14.46 hrs below average. There was 1 day without sunshine and the most recorded was 11.7 hours on the 7th.

There were no frosts.

Note: The average refers to the 30 year means 1991-2020.


August 2021: August was cool, dry and dull with below average temperature, rainfall and sunshine.

Rainfall was below average with 37.0 mm (-34.99 mm). We had 13 days with 0.2 mm or more of rain, of which 3 days had more than 5.0 mm; the most was 16.8 mm on the 21st.

The mean maximum air temperature was below average with 19.9 ºC (-1.69 ºC) and the mean minimum air temperature was just above average with 12.3 ºC (+0.02 ºC). The highest temperature was 23.3 ºC on the 14th. The lowest temperature was 8.1 ºC on the 29th.

Sunshine was below average with 114.2 hours (-75.21 hours). There were two days without sun and the sunniest day was the 4th with 9.4 hours.

There were no frosts.

Note: The average refers to the 30 year means 1991-2020.


July 2021: July 2021 was warm, relatively dry and dull.

Rainfall was 51.0 mm, which is 4.46 mm below average. We had 17 days with 0.2 mm or more of rain with 2 days having more than 5 mm. The greatest rainfall was 21.4 mm recorded on the 5th.

Sunshine was below average with 195.6 hrs (-11.18 hours). The most was 14.4 hours on the 16th and there was 0 days where no sunshine was recorded.

The average maximum air temperature was 22.3 ºC (+0.29 ºC) and the average minimum air temperature was 13.4 ºC (+1.04 ºC). The warmest day reached 29.5 ºC on the 20th. The lowest minimum air temperature was 10.0 ºC on the 16th.

There were no frosts.

Note: The average refers to the 30 year means 1991-2020.


June 2021: June 2021 was warm, wet and relatively cloudy.

Rainfall was 77.6 mm, which is 22.78 mm above average. We had 11 days with 0.2 mm or more of rain, of which 5 days had more than 5.0 mm. The most rainfall in a single day was 23.6 mm collected on the 18th.

Sunshine was 184.7 hours, which is 21.09 below average.

The mean maximum and minimum temperatures were both above average with 20.3ºC (+0.77ºC) and 11.8 ºC (+1.62ºC) respectively. The hottest day reached 26.2ºC on the 13th. The coolest night dropped to 5.1ºC on the 23rd. The June 2021 average air temperature was the 8th warmest in our records (started 1878).

There were no frosts.

Note: The average refers to the 30 year means 1991-2020.


May 2021: May was a cold, dull and wet month with below average temperatures and sunshine hours, and above average rainfall.

Rainfall was 94.4 mm, which is 41.14 mm above average. We had 24 days with 0.2 mm or more of rain, of which 9 days had more than 1.0 mm. The greatest fall of rain was 11.2 mm on the 21st of May.

Sunshine was below average with 150.4 hrs. (-52.92 hrs); the most was 10.1 hours on the 31st. There was one day without sunshine.

The average maximum and minimum temperatures were below average at 14.7ºC (-1.78ºC) and 6.2ºC (-1.10ºC). The highest (max) temperature was 22.3 ºC on the 31st and the lowest (min) temperature was 0.2ºC on the night of the 6th.

We had 0 air frosts and 10 ground frosts.

Note: The average refers to the 30 year means 1991-2020.


April 2021: April was sunny, cold, and mainly dry.

Rainfall was 1.6 mm which is 52.40 mm below average. We had 4 days with 0.2 mm or more of rain. The wettest day was the 9th with 1.0 mm. April was the driest since records began in 1853.

Sunshine was above average with 215.8 hours (+43.79 hours); the most was 12.9 hours on the 22nd and there was only 1 day without sunshine.

The average maximum and minimum temperatures were below average at 11.5ºC (-1.84ºC) and 1.1ºC (-3.36ºC). The warmest day was the 19th which reached 16.2ºC, and the coldest night was on the 7th when it dropped to -3.0ºC.

We had 11 air frosts and 22 ground frosts.

Note: The average refers to the 30 year means 1991-2020.


March 2021: March was relatively warm and cloudy with below average rainfall.

Rainfall was below average with 27.6 mm recorded, (-19.47 mm). We had 13 days with 0.2 mm or more of rain, and 1 day with more than 5 mm. The most recorded was 5.0 mm on the 10th.

Sunshine was below average with 112.0 hrs (-16.36); the most recorded was 10.9 hours on the 30th. There were 2 days without sunshine.

The mean maximum and minimum temperatures were above average with 10.7ºC (+0.42) and 3.5ºC (+0.62) respectively. The highest maximum temperature was 22.5ºC on the 30th and the lowest minimum was -1ºC on the 6th.

We had 1 air frost and 18 ground frosts.

Note: The average refers to the 30 year means 1991-2020.


February 2021: February was warm with below average sunshine and rain with some snow.

Rainfall was below average with 45.8 mm (-11.15 mm). We had 15 days with over 0.2 mm, and 4 days with more than 5.0 mm. The greatest rainfall was 9.0 mm on the 4th. Precipitation fell as snow on 8th with a very slight flurry on afternoon of 10th.

Sunshine was below average with 80.8 hrs. (-5.38 hrs). We had 3 days without any sunshine and the most was 9.1 hrs on the 26th.

The mean maximum and the mean minimum temperatures were above average with 8.1 ºC (+0.56ºC) and 2.2ºC (+0.73ºC) respectively. The lowest minimum was -4.9ºC on the 11th, and the highest maximum was 16.0ºC on the 24th.

We had 8 air frosts and 14 ground frosts.

Note: The average refers to the 30 year means 1991-2020.


January 2021: January was cold, wet and had below average sunshine.

Rainfall was above average with 113.6 mm (+39.48 mm). We had 23 days with 0.2 mm or more of rain and 10 had more than 5.0 mm. The most on one day was 25.6 mm on the 13th. Snow fell and settled on 24th.

Sunshine was below average with 52.0 hours (-11.91 hours); the most was 7.0 hours on the 25th. We had 9 days with no sunshine.

January’s mean maximum and minimum temperatures were below average at 5.8ºC (-1.20ºC) and 0.4ºC (-1.22ºC) respectively. The highest day temperature was 11.7ºC on the 28th and the lowest minimum was -4.9ºC on the 25th.

We had 17 air frosts and 18 ground frosts.

Note: The average refers to the 30 year means 1991-2020.


Previous Years

We only use analytics cookies on this site. Please refer to our Privacy and cookies policy

For further information and assistance, please contact the e-RA curators, Sarah Perryman and Margaret Glendining using the e-RA email address: era@rothamsted.ac.uk