Barnfield

  • Experiment Code: R/BN/7
  • Experiment Site: Rothamsted
  • Objectives: Effects of fertilizers and organic manures on root crops, arable crops and grass & clover.
  • Description: Barnfield was the first of the Classical Experiments, with treatments applied in spring 1843 for a crop of turnips sown in July. The treatments and cropping, although mainly roots, differed until 1876 when a period of continuous cropping with mangolds was started that lasted until 1959 (sugar beet were also grown, on half-plots, from 1946). Treatments during the first two years were on long narrow plots, as on Broadbalk. After various modification, the design was settled in 1856 when the strips testing minerals and FYM, including FYM + PK, were crossed at right angles by series comparing no N fertilizer with both inorganic and organic forms of N supplying 96 kg ha-1. Before 1968 this was the only Classical in which N was applied with both FYM and FYM + PK fertilizer. Because yields of continuous roots were declining, perhaps because of increasing numbers of cyst nematodes (Heterodera schachtii), the cropping has been progressively modified since 1959 and has included a range of arable crops, with an increased range of N dressings, and grass. From 1977 to 1983 the series that had never received N fertilizer was kept fallow. It was sown to a grass-clover ley in 1984. The remainder has been in grass since 1975. No treatments have been applied and no yields taken since 2001, although the site is currently still available. Recently soil from the site was used in a study investigating the response of wheat roots to soil P supply (Yuan et al, 2016).
  • Date Start: 1843
  • Establisment Period End: 1855
  • Date End: 2001

Key Contacts

  • Sarah Perryman

  • Role: Data Manager
  • Organisation: Rothamsted Research
  • Address: West Common, Harpenden, Hertfordshire, AL5 2JQ, United Kingdom
  • Margaret Glendining

  • Role: Data Manager
  • ORCID: 0000-0002-6466-4629
  • Organisation: Rothamsted Research
  • Address: West Common, Harpenden, Hertfordshire, AL5 2JQ, United Kingdom
  • Andy Gregory

  • Role: Experiment Manager
  • Organisation: Rothamsted Research
  • Address: West Common, Harpenden, Hertfordshire, AL5 2JQ, United Kingdom

Funding

Experimental Design

Description

  • The final treatment arrangement, settled on since 1879, consisted of 35 plots arranged in seven 'strips' running roughly north-south and five series running at right-angles. The plots of each strip each received one of certain combinations of farmyard manure and mineral fertilizers. The plots of each series each received one of certain combinations of castor meal, ammonium sulphate or sodium nitrate. From 1946 four rows of sugar beet were drilled on each plot, occupying about one third of the total area.

Design

  • Period: 1843 - 1959
  • Number of Blocks: 35
  • Number of Harvests per Year: 1

Crops

Crop Years Grown
Turnips1843 - 1848
Swedes1849 - 1852
Barley1853 - 1855
Swedes1856 - 1870
Sugar Beet1871 - 1875
Mangolds1876 - 1959
Sugar Beet1946 - 1959

Factors

Factors are the interventions or treatments which vary across the experiment.

Fertilizer Exposure

Application: Whole Plot

Levels
Level Name Amount Years Frequency Crop Method Chemical Form Notes
Control Exposure - Both strip and series treatment had a control exposure.
Sodium Nitrate 93 kgN/ha -
Castor Meal 2241 kg/ha - Until 1939 rapeseed cake (none between 1917-1920) at 2241 kg/ha; 1940 to 1954 castor meal also at 2241 kg/ha and since 1955 castor meal to provide 93 kgN/ha.
Ammonium Sulphate 93 kgN/ha - Until 1916 equal parts of ammonium sulphate and ammonium chloride
Farmyard Manure 35 t/ha -
Phosphorous 33 kgP/ha - As superphosphate, except 1896-1902 when basic slag was used.
Potassium 224 kgK/ha - potassium chloride As muriate of potash (potassium chloride)
Magnesium 22 kgMg/ha - magnesium sulphate
Sodium 90 kgNa/ha - As agricultural salts (sodium chloride)

Factor Combinations

Factor Combinations are the combination of factors applied to different plots on the experiment.

Factor Combination Time Coverage Notes
O - Series treatment factor combination
N - Series treatment factor combination
A - Series treatment factor combination
AC - Series treatment factor combination
C - Series treatment factor combination
D - Strip treatment factor combination
DPK - Series treatment factor combination
PKNaMg -
P -
PK -
PNaMg -
None -

Description

  • 35 plots with 7 strips and five series running at right angles (plot 9 was outside this scheme).

Design

  • Period: 1960 - 1977
  • Number of Blocks: 35

Crops

Crop Years Grown
Potatoes
Mangolds

Factors

Factors are the interventions or treatments which vary across the experiment.

Farmyard Manure Exposure

Levels
Level Name Amount Years Frequency Crop Method Chemical Form Notes

Castor Meal Exposure

Levels
Level Name Amount Years Frequency Crop Method Chemical Form Notes

Nitrogen Fertilizer Exposure

Description: as sulphate of ammonia

Levels
Level Name Amount Years Frequency Crop Method Chemical Form Notes
Default Title 0 cwt - ammonium sulfate applied in seed bed
Default Title 0.6 cwt - ammonium sulfate
Default Title 1.2 cwt - ammonium sulfate
Default Title 1.8 cwt - ammonium sulfate

Nitrogen Fertilizer Exposure

Description: as nitrate of soda

Levels
Level Name Amount Years Frequency Crop Method Chemical Form Notes
Default Title - applied in seed bed

Phosphate Fertilizer Exposure

Levels
Level Name Amount Years Frequency Crop Method Chemical Form Notes

Potassium Fertilizer Exposure

Levels
Level Name Amount Years Frequency Crop Method Chemical Form Notes

Magnesium Nutrient Exposure

Levels
Level Name Amount Years Frequency Crop Method Chemical Form Notes

Sodium Nutrient Exposure

Levels
Level Name Amount Years Frequency Crop Method Chemical Form Notes

Description

  • From 1977 to 1983 the series that had never received N fertilizer was kept fallow. It was sown to a grass-clover ley in 1984. The remainder has been in grass since 1975.

Design

  • Period: 1977 - 2001

Crops

Crop Years Grown
Grass
Clover

Factors

Factors are the interventions or treatments which vary across the experiment.

Farmyard Manure Exposure

Description: until 1975, none since

Levels
Level Name Amount Years Frequency Crop Method Chemical Form Notes
Default Title 35 tons/acre -

Nitrogen Fertilizer Exposure

Description: no nitrogen applied in 1995

Levels
Level Name Amount Years Frequency Crop Method Chemical Form Notes
Default Title 75 -
Default Title 100 -
Default Title 125 -
Default Title 150 -

Phosphate Fertilizer Exposure

Levels
Level Name Amount Years Frequency Crop Method Chemical Form Notes
Default Title 35 kgP/ha 1987 - triple superphosphate since 1987 and in 1974
Default Title 35 - single superphosphate

Potassium Fertilizer Exposure

Levels
Level Name Amount Years Frequency Crop Method Chemical Form Notes
Default Title 225 kgK/ha - potassium sulphate

Magnesium Nutrient Exposure

Levels
Level Name Amount Years Frequency Crop Method Chemical Form Notes
Default Title 90 kgMg/ha - every fourth year magnesium sulphate (as kiersite since 1974)

Castor Meal Exposure

Description: last applied 1971

Levels
Level Name Amount Years Frequency Crop Method Chemical Form Notes

Sodium Nutrient Exposure

Levels
Level Name Amount Years Frequency Crop Method Chemical Form Notes
Default Title kgNa/ha - 1973 sodium chloride

Factor Combinations

Factor Combinations are the combination of factors applied to different plots on the experiment.

Factor Combination Time Coverage Notes
D - 1975 D=farmyard manure
DPK -
PK(Na)Mg - Na until 1973, none since
P -
PK -
P(Na)MG - Na until 1973, none since
0 -

Site: Barnfield - Rothamsted

Soil

  • Type: Luvisol
There are currently no prepared datasets online for this experiment. However, there may still be data available but requiring curation. For more information please contact the e-RA curators.

Key References

2016

  • Yuan, H. M. , Blackwell, M. , Mcgrath, S. , George, T. S. , Granger, S. J. , Hawkins, J. M. B. , Dunham, S. and Shen, J. B.(2016) "Morphological responses of wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) roots to phosphorus supply in two contrasting soils", Journal of Agricultural Science, 154, 98-108
    DOI: 10.1017/s0021859615000702

1976

  • Johnston, A. E. and Mattingly, G. E. G.(1976) "Experiments on the continuous growth of arable crops at Rothamsted and Woburn Experimental Stations: Effects of treatments on crop yields and soil analyses and recent modifications in purpose and design", Annales Agronomiques, 27, 927-956

For further information and assistance, please contact the e-RA curators, Sarah Perryman and Margaret Glendining using the e-RA email address: era@rothamsted.ac.uk