Saxmundham II

  • Experiment Code: S/RN/2
  • Experiment Site: Saxmundham
  • Objectives: To investigate the effects of soil P and fresh fertilizer P on the yields of arable crops at a range of soil P values.
  • Description: The experiment consists of 8 Main Strips (originally 10). Between 1899 and 1968 various combinations of FYM and P fertilizer applied to these Main Strips resulted a wide range of Olsen P values (4-65 mg/kg Olsen P). By 1969 the eight strips were divided into four blocks (A, B, C and D) with 20 micro-plots in each strip. On each set of micro-plots within each Strip/Block five amounts of P fertilizer were tested on potatoes, sugar beet, spring barley and winter wheat). Yields and P uptake were measured and Soil Olsen P content.
  • Date Start: 1899
  • Establisment Period End: 1968
  • Date End: 2010

Key Contacts

  • Andy Macdonald

  • Role: Principal Investigator
  • Organisation: Rothamsted Research
  • Address: West Common, Harpenden, Hertfordshire, AL5 2JQ, United Kingdom
  • Paul Poulton

  • Role: Principal Investigator
  • Organisation: Rothamsted Research
  • Address: West Common, Harpenden, Hertfordshire, AL5 2JQ, United Kingdom
  • Margaret Glendining

  • Role: Data Manager
  • ORCID: https://orcid.org/0000-0002-6466-4629
  • Organisation: Rothamsted Research
  • Address: West Common, Harpenden, Hertfordshire, AL5 2JQ, United Kingdom

Funding

Experimental Design

Description

  • 4 blocks (A, B, C, D) each containing 8 main strips (1-8), each divided into 5 micro-plots (01-20) (each 5.49 x 3.56 m). Cropping and treatments to the micro-plots were phased-in, with Blocks A and B starting in 1969 and Blocks C and D in 1970. On each set of micro-plots within each strip/Block five amounts of P fertilizer were tested. On each set of micro-plots within each Strip/Block, five amounts of P fertilizer were tested, P0, P0, P1, P2, P3 (0, 0, 27.4, 54.8, 82.2 kg P/ha). These were applied every second year (see '(a)' on plan). Between 1973-1975 on Blocks A & B (1974-1976 on blocks C & D) one of the P0 micro-plots remained as P0, two micro-plots received a total of 82.2 kg P/ha as 3 annual dressings each of 27.4 kg P/ha and two micro-plots received a total of 82.2 kg P/ha as one dressing only in 1973 (or 1974) (see '(b)' on plan). From autumn 1977 (or 1978) a 'maintenance' dressing of 52.4 kg P/ha was applied every second year to two of the micro-plots; no P was applied to the others (see 'c' on the plan). Some microplots received no further applications of manure or fertilizer P after 1968 by which time a wide range of Olsen P values had been established. The decline in Olsen P in each of the eight main treatment strips was measured and, by shifting the eight decay curves horizontally, a common decay curve could be fitted to the data (Johnston et al., 1986). The half-life, i.e. the time taken for Olsen P to decline by half from any given value to an asymptote (the lowest Olsen P value measured on the experiment), could be calculated (Johnston et al., 2016 and other papers). Data from the Rotation II experiment at Saxmundham has been included in a paper published in a special issue of the Journal of Environmental Quality to mark the 350th Anniversary of the discovery of phosphorus (Johnston & Poulton, 2019).

Design

  • Period: 1969 - 2010
  • Number of Blocks: 4
  • Number of Blocks: 8
  • Number of Replicates: 4
  • Number of Sub-plots: 4
  • Number of Harvests per Year: 1

Crops

Crop Years Grown
Potatoes1969 - 1974
Sugarbeet1969 - 1974
Winter Wheat1977 - 1986
Barley1970 - 1979
Faba Beans

Factors

Factors are the interventions or treatments which vary across the experiment.

Phosphate Fertilizer Exposure

Description: Five amounts of P were tested, P0, P0, P1, P2 and P3. (0, 0, 27.4, 54.8 and 82.2 kg P /ha) applied to a range of existing soil P levels (4-65 mgP/ha). These were applied every two years.

Levels
Level Name Amount Years Frequency Crop Method Chemical Form Notes

Measurements

Variable Unit Collection
Frequency
Material Description Crop
Plant Available Phosphorous Annual Soil Olsen P in soil 0-23cm, 1969-1984
Yield Components t/ha annually AllCrops Cereal grain and straw yields, sugar yields from sugar beet and tuber yields from potatoes, 1970-1986
Phosphorous Content kgP/ha annually AllCrops P uptake from cereal grain and straw, potato tubers, sugar from sugar beet. P uptake by beans (1980-1985) estimated.
Soil Organic Carbon occasionally Soil 1969, 1977/78 and 1981/2. Measured by Tinsley, 0-23cm.
Soil pH occasionally Soil 1969, 1977/78 and 1981/2. pH in 0.01 M CaCl2, 0-23cm
Fertilizer N Applied kgN/ha annually Fertilizer N applied to crops 1969-1986
Fertilizer 15n Recovery kgN/ha annually SpecifiedCrop Nitrogen (N) fertilizer labelled with the heavy isotope 15N was applied to some of the winter wheat plots in the early 1980s, to determine the recovery of fertilizer N in the crop and soil. See Powlson et al (1992) for the recovery of fertilizer N applied in the autumn; Hart et al (1993) for the fate of the residues; Macdonald et al (1989) for the recovery of unused fertilizer N in the soil. The data was also used to partition losses between denitrification and leaching (Addiscott & Powlson, 1992) and to model the fate of N in crop and soil (Bradbury et al, 1993). winter wheat
Exchangeable K mg/kg occasionally Soil 1970/71 and 1977/78. 0-23cm.

Description

  • Four large blocks each comprising 10 treatment strips. The treatments were applied once every four years. In 1952 two-thirds of the experiment was stopped, although one strip on two blocks we re-incorporated into the experiment later. See Boyd and Trist (1966) for results for this period.

Design

  • Period: 1899 - 1964
  • Number of Blocks: 4
  • Number of Blocks: 10
  • Number of Replicates: 4
  • Number of Harvests per Year: 1

Crops

Crop Years Grown
Winter Wheat
Root Crops
Barley
Legumes

Factors

Factors are the interventions or treatments which vary across the experiment.

Farmyard Manure Exposure

Description: 25.1 t/ha of FYM

Levels
Level Name Amount Years Frequency Crop Method Chemical Form Notes

Nitrogen Fertilizer Exposure

Description: Sodium nitrate

Levels
Level Name Amount Years Frequency Crop Method Chemical Form Notes

Superphosphate Exposure

Levels
Level Name Amount Years Frequency Crop Method Chemical Form Notes

Description

  • 4 large blocks with 8 treatment plots. Barley was grown in 1965, potatoes in 1966 and white turnips and sugar beet in 1967 and barley in 1968.

Design

  • Period: 1965 - 1968
  • Number of Blocks: 8
  • Number of Replicates: 4
  • Number of Harvests per Year: 1

Crops

Crop Years Grown
Barley
Potatoes
Turnips
Sugarbeet

Factors

Factors are the interventions or treatments which vary across the experiment.

Farmyard Manure Exposure

Description: Applied to plots 4 and 5 in 1966 and 1967, a total of 100.4t/ha .

Levels
Level Name Amount Years Frequency Crop Method Chemical Form Notes

Phosphate Fertilizer Exposure

Description: Applied to plots 5,6 (total of 246.6 kgP/ha) and 7 (total of 493.2kgP/ha) 1965-69

Levels
Level Name Amount Years Frequency Crop Method Chemical Form Notes

Site: Saxmundham II - Saxmundham

  • Experiment Site: Saxmundham
  • Description: Rothamsted relinquished the site in 2010
  • Management: The site is no longer managed as an experimental site.
  • Visit Permitted?: No
  • Visiting Arrangments: None
  • Elevation: 37 Metres
  • Geolocation:    52.221, 1.466

Soil

  • Type: Eutric Gleysol
    Sandy clay loam developed in drift over Chalky boulder clay, Beccles Series
There are currently no prepared datasets online for this experiment. However, there may still be data available but requiring curation. For more information please contact the e-RA curators.

Picture Gallery

Key References

2019

  • Poulton, P. R. and Glendining, M. J. (2019) "Saxmundham Rotation II experimental details, 1969-1986", Electronic Rothamsted Archive, Rothamsted Research
    DOI: 10.23637/srn2-details1969-01
  • Johnston, A. E. and Poulton, P. R. (2019) "Phosphorus in Agriculture: A Review of Results from 175 Years of Research at Rothamsted, UK", Journal of Environmental Quality, 48, 1133-1144
    DOI: 10.2134/jeq2019.02.0078

2016

  • Johnston, A. E. , Poulton, P. R. , White, R. P. and Macdonald, A. J. (2016) "Determining the longer term decline in plant-available soil phosphorus from short-term measured values", Soil Use and Management, 32, 151-161
    DOI: 10.1111/sum.12253

2014

  • Johnston, A. E. , Poulton, P. R. , Fixen, P. E. and Curtin, D. (2014) "Phosphorus: Its Efficient Use in Agriculture", Advances in Agronomy, Vol 123, 123, 177-228
    DOI: 10.1016/b978-0-12-420225-2.00005-4

2013

  • Johnston, A. E. , Poulton, P. R. and White, R. P. (2013) "Plant-available soil phosphorus. Part II: the response of arable crops to Olsen P on a sandy clay loam and a silty clay loam", Soil Use and Management, 29, 12-21
    DOI: 10.1111/j.1475-2743.2012.00449.x

2011

  • Johnston, A. E. and Poulton, P. R. (2011) "Response of cereals to soil and fertilizer phosphorus", HGCA Research Review 74

1987

1986

  • Johnston, A. E. , Lane, P. W. , Mattingly, G. E. G. , Poulton, P. R. and Hewitt, M. V. (1986) "Effects of soil and fertilizer P on yields of potatoes, sugar beet, barley and winter wheat on a sandy clay loam soil at Saxmundham, Suffolk", Journal of Agricultural Science, 106, 155-167
    DOI: 10.1017/S0021859600061864
  • Goulding, K. W. T. , Poulton, P. R. , Thomas, V. H. and Williams, R. J. B. (1986) "Atmospheric deposition at Rothamsted experimental station, Saxmundham experimental station and Woburn experimental station, England, 1969-1984", Water Air and Soil Pollution, 29, 27-49
    DOI: 10.1007/bf00149327

1984

  • Goulding, K. W. T. and Talibudeen, O. (1984) "Thermodynamics of K-Ca exchange in soils. I. Effects of potassium and organic matter residues in soils from the Broadbalk and Saxmundham Rotation I Experiments.", Journal of Soil Science, 35, 397-408
    DOI: 10.1111/j.1365-2389.1984.tb00296.x

1979

  • Goulding, K. W. T. and Talibudeen, O. (1979) "Potassium reserves in a sandy clay soil from the Saxmundham Experiment: Kinetics and equilibrium thermodynamics", Journal of Soil Science, 30, 291-302
    DOI: 10.1111/j.1365-2389.1979.tb00986.x

1972

1971

  • Williams, R. J. B. and Cooke, G. W. (1971) "Results of the Rotation I experiment at Saxmundham,", Rothamsted Experimental Station Report for 1970, Part 2
    Get from eRAdoc: ResReport1970p2-68-97

1970

  • Mattingly, G. E. G. , Johnston, A. E. and Chater, M. (1970) "The residual value of farmyard manure and superphosphate in the Saxmundham Rotation II Experiment,", Rothamsted Experimental Station Report for 1969 , Part 2
    Get from eRAdoc: ResReport1969p2-91-112

1968

  • Cooke, G. W. (1968) "The Saxmundham Experiments. Weather", Rothamsted Experimental Station Report for 1967
    DOI: 10.23637/ERADOC-1-120

1967

  • Cooke, G. W. (1967) "The Saxmundham Experiments. Weather and cultivations", Rothamsted Experimental Station Report for 1966
    DOI: 10.23637/ERADOC-1-14

1966

  • Trist, P. J. O. and Boyd, D. A. (1966) "The Saxmundham rotation experiments. Rotation, I.", Journal of Agricultural Science, 66, 327-336
    DOI: 10.1017/S0021859600063620
  • Boyd, D. A. and Trist, P. J. O. (1966) "The Saxmundham rotation experiments: Rotation II, 1899-1952", Journal of Agricultural Science, 66, 337-339
    DOI: 10.1017/S0021859600063632

1941

  • Oldershaw, A. W. (1941) "Experiments on arable crops at Saxmundham", Journal of the Royal Agricultural Society, 102, 136-155

For further information and assistance, please contact the e-RA curators, Sarah Perryman and Margaret Glendining using the e-RA email address: era@rothamsted.ac.uk