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Soil Fumigation Experiment, Spring Oats, Pastures, 1935

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Creative Commons License This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License.

You are free to re-use this data but YOU MUST CITE AS: Rothamsted Research (2019), Soil fumigation experiment. Effect of "cymag," carbon disulphide jelly, chlordinitrobenzene and "seekay", Pastures, Rothamsted 1935. Electronic Rothamsted Archive https://doi.org/10.23637/OA-OE-1935002-1

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    Publication Date

    Publication date V1. 2019/05/03
    Last updated V1. 2019/09/11

    Rothamsted relies on the integrity of users to ensure that Rothamsted Research receives suitable acknowledgment as being the originators of these data. This enables us to monitor the use of each dataset and to demonstrate their value. Please send us a link to any publication that uses this Rothamsted data.

    Description

    Numbers of eelworms in soil before and after fumigant treatments. This dataset consists of the plan, treatments, cultivations, yields and numbers of nematode eelworm cysts relating to the Fumigation Experiment conducted in the field, Pastures, at Rothamsted Experimental Station in 1935. In March 1935, 400 grams of soil were sampled and the number of eelworm cysts were counted. Fumigants were added to the soil, oats were sown and harvested in August. In October the plots were sampled again and the final number of cysts recorded.

    This experiment is originally documented in the Rothamsted Annual Report of 1935 pages 176-178 as digitally archived in eRADoc "Other Experiments at Rothamsted" (1936) Report for 1935, DOI: https://doi.org/10.23637/ERADOC-1-67

    See Soil Fumigation Experiment 1936 for the next years results.

    Use as an agricultural dataset for statistical techniques

    This experiment was used as the source of data and information for agricultural data package in Package 'agridat' July 2018 page 108 "cochran.eelworms; Counts of eelworms before and after fumigant treatments'' https://cran.r-project.org/web/packages/agridat/agridat.pdf which in turn was sourced from Cochran and Cox, 1950 Experimental Designs. Table 3.1.

    This dataset consists of 48 observations with 4 randomised blocks of 12 treatment plots. The yields in the Tables and Summary Tables are in different quantities; the conversion factors for cwt/acre to tonnes/ha is 0.1255, for cwt/acre to kg/ha is 125.5 and for lb/acre to kg/ha is 1.121.

    Publication: Soil fumigation experiment. Effect of "cymag", carbon disulphide jelly, chlordinitrobenzene and "seekay"

    Soil fumigation experiment. Effect of cymag, carbon disulphide jelly, chlordinitrobenzene and seekay

    Table1PlanYields

    The position of the blocks in the field were slightly different from those shown above.

    System of replication: 4 randomised blocks of 12 plots each.
    Area of each plots: 1/80 acre (30lks. X 41.7 lks.).
    Treatments: No fumigant (O), single (1) and double (2) dressings of cymag (CM), carbon disulphide jelly (S), chlordinitrobenzene (N) and seekay (CK), at the following rates of application per acre for the single dressing: 1 CM, 7.5 cwt.; 1 S, 24.3 cwt.; 1 N, 2.0 cwt. and 1 CK, 5.0 cwt.
    Basal Manuring: 1 cwt. sulphate of ammonia per acre.
    Cultivations: Ploughed: March 21 and 22. Fumigants ploughed in. Harrowed: March 25 and 26. Rolled: March 26. Drilled: March 26. Harrowed: March 27. Rolled: March 27. Harrowed: May 3. Harvested: August 9. Variety: Marvellous. Previous crop: Spring oats.
    Special Note: The ratio of weeds to total oats was determined by sampling at harvesting, two random samples being taken per plot.
    Standard Errors per plot: Grain: 3.38 cwt. per acre or 28.5%; straw: 6.17 cwt. per acre or 30.4%; weeds: 5.07 cwt. per acre.

    Table 2. Summary of Results

     
    GRAIN: cwt. per acre (+-1.69. Means +-1.19)
    STRAW: cwt. per acre
     
    Chlor-dinitro-benzene
    Carbon disulphide jelly
    Cymag
    Seekay
    Chlor-dinitro-benzene
    Carbon disulphide jelly
    Cymag
    Seekay
    None ..
    9.6*
    15.5
    Single ..
    6.5
    14.9
    15.8
    Nil
    12.5
    27
    26.6
    Nil
    Double ..
    6.6
    17.8
    18.3
    Nil
    13.6
    28.7
    32.6
    Nil
    Mean of single and double ..
    6.6
    16.4
    17.0
    Nil
    13.0
    27.8
    29.6
    Nil

    Standard Error: * +/-0.845. No single standard error is applicable to the straw yields

     
    WEEDS: cwt. per acre
    Chlordinitro-benzene
    Carbon disulphide jelly
    Cymag
    Seekay
    None ..
    26.3
    Single ..
    11.4
    14.6
    11.9
    Nil
    Douible ..
    4.4
    7.8
    4.9
    Nil
    Mean of single and double ..
    7.9
    11.2
    8.4
    nil

     

    Conclusions

    Carbon disulphide jelly and cymag produced significant increases in the yield of grain, cymag giving slightly, but not significantly, higher yields than carbon disulphide jelly. In neither case was the falling-off in response at the higher level of dressing significant. The responses were presumably due in part at least to nitrogen, the single dressing of carbon disulphide jelly and cymag being equivalent to 37 and 87 lb. nitrogen per acre respectively. Chlordinitrobenzene significantly decreased the yield, but there was no apparent difference between the effects of the single and double dressings. There was practically no crop on the plots receiving seekay, due to the short interval between application of the fumigants and the drilling of the seed.

    No relation was found between the yields and the numbers of cysts at the second eelworm count after eliminating treatment effects.

    The results for straw were similar to those for grain.

    All fumigants produced large decreases in the weight of weeds, with a further decrease with the double dressing. The crop was unusually weedy.

    Table 3. Plan and numbers of cysts per 400 gms. of soil, first count above, second below

    Table3PlanCysts

    Note: First count: March 8. Second count: October 14. Two random samples of about 100 gms. of soil each were taken per half plot.

    Standard Errors per Plot (400 gms. of soil): First count: sampling error 28.1, or 21.9%. Experimental error 58.1 or 45.2%. Second count: sampling error 74.3, or 24.3%. Experimental error: 123.0, or 40.2%. Second count adjusted for first count: experimental error 84.4, or 27.6%.

    Table 4. Summary of results
     
    Second count, adjusted for first count (+/-42.2. Means: +/-29.8)
    Chlordinitro-benzene
    Carbon disulphide jelly
    Cymag
    Seekay
    None ..
    374**
    Single ..
    310
    270
    358
    201
    Double ..
    365
    203
    289
    178
    Mean of single and double ..
    338
    236
    324
    190

    Standard error (:) (**) +-21.1.

    Conclusions

    Carbon disulphide jelly and seekay produced significant decreases in the number of cysts, the falling-off in the decrease at the higher level of dressing being small for carbon disulphide jelly and not quite significant for seekay. The decreases due to chlordinitrobenzene and cymag were not significant and were signifiantly less than those due to the other two fumigants.

    Download the Data

    This dataset is presented as a downloadable Excel Spreadsheets:

    Table 1. Plan and yields 1935

    Table 2. Summary of Results Grain, Straw, Weeds 1935

    Table 3. Plan and numbers of cysts 1935

    Table 4. Summary of Results 1935

    and as a sorted dataset for statistical analysis:

    Combined results: Eel cyst counts and yields 1935

    Key Reference

    "Soil fumigation experiment. Effect of cymag, carbon disulphide jelly, chlordinitrobenzene and seekay, Rothamsted Report for 1935, pp 176-178. DOI: https://doi.org/10.23637/ERADOC-1-67 (published 1936).

    Provenance & Quality

    This is transcribed from the Rothamsted Annual Report for 1935 and checked for quality control.

    Keywords:

    Experimental design
    Statistical data
    Soil
    Eelworms
    Nematodes
    Rothamsted

    Authors

    Sarah Perryman, Margaret Glendining, Richard Ostler

    Publisher

    Rothamsted Research.

    Contact details

    Please contact the e-RA Curators for further information.

    e-RA Curators,
    Department of Computational and Analytical Sciences (CAS)
    Rothamsted Research
    Harpenden, Herts, AL5 2JQ

    email: era@rothamsted.ac.uk

    Funding

    The Long-term Experiments and weather stations are supported by the Lawes Agricultural Trust and BBSRC National Capability Funding (BBS/E/C/000J0300) recognising the national and international importance of the data.

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