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Broadbalk open access data

Broadbalk Open Access Data

Selected data from our long term experiments is being made freely available to the scientific community, as prepared summaries of commonly requested data. This recognises the national and international importance of the data. The aim is that greater use of the data will lead to further understanding and wider benefits. Rothamsted relies on the integrity of the user to ensure that Rothamsted Research receives suitable academic acknowledgment as being the originators of these data, and offer assistance to users to help ensure that where these data are being applied they are represented and interpreted in a rigorous way. Please contact the e-RA curators for help with questions about the data or its interpretation.

Creative Commons License This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License.

The following Broadbalk Open Access Datasets are currently available:

Broadbalk Yields

Last updated 01/09/2017

Access and use conditions

Creative Commons License This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License.

YOU MUST CITE AS: Rothamsted Research (2017). Broadbalk mean long-term winter wheat grain yields. Electronic Rothamsted Archive https://doi.org/10.23637/KeyRefOABKyields.

Click to download chart Broadbalk Yields

Click the chart above for a PDF version. Summary data used for this chart and information on treatments, are available to download as an Excel Spreadsheet: Yield data and treatments.

This summary data is derived from annual plot data for the relevant selected plots and treatments. The original raw data is available, after registering, from the e-RA database. Contact the e-RA curators to arrange a password.

Description

This summary data shows the mean long-term winter wheat yields from selected treatments on Broadbalk 1852-2016, excluding spring wheat in 2015. These changes in mean long-term winter wheat yields reflect the improved treatments and agronomic practices introduced on Broadbalk such as modern cultivars, better control of pests, diseases and weeds, especially since the 1960s. To control weeds, the experiment was divided into five sections in the 1920s and one section bare fallowed each year. The introduction of herbicides removed the need for fallowing. Yields of continuous wheat given no fertilizer or manure have remained at around 1 t ha-1. In 1968 a rotation was introduced on part of the experiment, so that it is now possible to compare the yields of wheat grown continuously and as the first wheat after a two-year break. Since 1979 summer fungicides have been used, which has allowed us to exploit the greater grain yield potential of modern cultivars. From 1985, two higher N rates have been tested, 240 and 288 kg N ha -1. The highest yields are now from the first wheat crop in rotation, with the greatest yields from fertilizer alone exceeding those from FYM alone, and the combination of FYM + 96 kgN ha-1 (144 kgN ha-1 since 2005) often exceeding both. The largest annual wheat yields on Broadbalk (>13 t ha-1) were recorded in 2014, following the change in variety from Hereward to Crusoe. The greatest yields were not always achieved with the highest N rate. The figure shows the mean greatest first wheat yields achieved from the NPK treatments, receiving up to a maximum of 288 kg N ha-1 (a maximum of 192 kg N ha-1 from 1968-1984).

CROPPING AND TREATMENTS

Continuous wheat: Wheat grown every year since autumn 1843, except when parts of the experiment were fallowed to control weeds. The experiment was divided into 10 sections in 1968; yields shown are mean of Sections 1 and 9 (two of the five sections currently in "continuous" wheat).
1st wheat in rotation: Some parts of the experiment have been in crop rotations since 1968. Yields are from the 1st wheat in rotation; currently oats, maize, wheat, wheat, wheat (sections 2-5 and 7).
Unfertilized - Nil: No fertilizer or manure applied since 1852.
FYM: Farmyard manure - 35 t ha -1 of Farmyard Manure applied each year since 1843.
PK+144kgN: PK +144kgN ha -1 applied each year since 1852.
FYM+96kgN (+144kgN since 2005): 35 t ha -1 FYM since 1885 plus 96kgN ha -1 since 1968 (plus 144 kgN ha -1 since 2005).
Greatest yield NPK plots: Fertilizer treatment (NPK) giving highest yield each year (max. 288kgN ha -1). Since 2001 greatest yields have been selected from plots 8,9,12,15-18.

AGRONOMIC PRACTICES

Fallowing: Between 1926 and 1967 the experiment was divided into five sections which were bare fallowed sequentially one year in five to control weeds. Wheat was grown in the other four years.
Liming: Lime (calcium carbonate, often referred to as chalk) has been applied since the 1950s to maintain soil pH at a level which does not limit yield.
Herbicides: Herbicides were introduced in 1964; previously weeds were controlled by hand-hoeing or by fallowing and cultivation.
Modern cultivars: Modern short-strawed, high-yielding cultivars since 1968.
Fungicides: spring and summer fungicides as necessary since 1978.

Keywords

Broadbalk long-term experiment
Long-term experiments
Crop yield
Wheat
Fertilizer
Farmyard manure
Cropping system
Crop rotation

Further information

For further information about the experiment see Broadbalk Winter Wheat Experiment. and the key references below. Further details can be obtained from the e-RA curators and the Rothamsted Guide to the Classical Experiments (2006), pp 8-18.

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Broadbalk Soil Organic Carbon

Last updated 04/06/2014

Access and use conditions

Creative Commons License This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License.

YOU MUST CITE AS: Rothamsted Research (2014). Broadbalk soil organic carbon content. Electronic Rothamsted Archive https://doi.org/10.23637/KeyRefOABKsoc.

Click to download chart Broadbalk SOC

Click the chart above for a PDF version. Data used for this chart are available to download as an Excel Spreadsheet: SOC data and treatments.

This selected data is updated from Powlson et al, 2012. The complete data set is available from the e-RA curators.

Description

The figure shows the long-term changes in soil organic carbon (SOC) (t ha-1) content in the topsoil (0-23 cm) in selected treatments of the Broadbalk experiment, where winter wheat has been grown each year since 1843 ("continuous wheat"). Data has been calculated from measured % SOC (0-23 cm) and standard soil weights, adjusted for observed decreases in top soil bulk density of plots given FYM, by including the appropriate amount of subsoil to ensure soil weights were comparable over time. SOC has remained almost constant in the unfertilized plot, at the equilibrium level for this farming system on this soil type. Inorganic fertilizer (N3PK) has enhanced SOC a little, probably due to increased returns of organic matter in crop roots and above-ground crop residues. The treatment given FYM (35 t ha-1) since 1843 now contains almost three times as much SOC as the unfertilized plot. Increases due to FYM were greatest in the initial years of the experiment. The same trends can be seen in the FYM treatments that started in 1885 and 1968.

CROPPING AND TREATMENTS

Continuous wheat: Wheat grown every year since autumn 1843, except when parts of the experiment were fallowed to control weeds. The experiment was divided into 10 sections in 1968; data shown are mean of sections 1, 6 and 9, which are those sections in continuous wheat (except for occasional fallow). In other sections, not included in this chart, wheat is grown in rotation with other crops.

Nil: Plot 3 - No fertilizer or manure applied since 1852.
PK: Plot 5- PKMg applied since 1852.
N3PK: Plot 8 - PKMg + 144 kgN ha -1 applied since 1852.
FYM since 1843: Plot 2.1 - 35 t ha -1 of farmyard manure applied since 1843.
FYM since 1885 + N since 1968: Plot 2.2 - 35 t ha -1 of farmyard manure since 1885 plus 96 kgN ha -1 since 1968, plus 144 kgN ha -1 since 2005.
FYM+N 1968-2000; N4 since 2001: Plot 1 - 35 t ha -1 of farmyard manure 1968-2000 only, plus PK + 96 kgN ha -1 1968 -1984, plus PK + 192 kgN ha -1 1985-2000, 192 kgN only since 2001.


AGRONOMIC PRACTICES

Fallowing: Between 1926 and 1967 the experiment was divided into five sections which were bare fallowed sequentially one year in five to control weeds. Wheat was grown in the other four years.
Liming: Lime (calcium carbonate, often referred to as chalk) has been applied since the 1950s to maintain soil pH at a level which does not limit yield.
Herbicides: Herbicides were introduced in 1964; previously weeds were controlled by hand-hoeing or by fallowing and cultivation.
Modern cultivars: Modern short-strawed, high-yielding cultivars since 1968.
Fungicides: spring and summer fungicides as necessary since 1978

Keywords

Broadbalk long-term experiment
Long-term experiments
Soil
Soil organic carbon
Farmyard manure

Further information

For further information about the experiment see Broadbalk Winter Wheat Experiment and the key references below. For further information about the fertilizer treatments see Broadbalk Fertilizer Treatments (pdf). For further information about the soil, including site details and soil weights, see Broadbalk Soils.

Further details can be obtained from the e-RA curators and the Rothamsted Guide to the Classical Experiments (2006), pp 8-18.

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Broadbalk soil: Concentration of Olsen P (plant-available P)

Last updated 22/08/2016

Access and use conditions

Creative Commons License This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License.

YOU MUST CITE AS: Rothamsted Research (2016). Broadbalk changes in Olsen P in topsoil. Electronic Rothamsted Archive https://doi.org/10.23637/KeyRefOABKolsenP.

Click to download chart Broadbalk Olsen P

Click the chart above for a PDF version. Data used for this chart and information on treatments, are available to download as an Excel Spreadsheet: Olsen P data and treatments.

This data is for selected treatments only. The complete data set is available from the e-RA curators.

Description

The figure shows the long-term changes in soil organic carbon (SOC) (t ha-1) content in the topsoil (0-23 cm) in selected treatments of the Broadbalk experiment, where winter wheat has been grown each year since 1843 ("continuous wheat"). Data has been calculated from measured % SOC (0-23 cm) and standard soil weights, adjusted for observed decreases in top soil bulk density of plots given FYM, by including the appropriate amount of subsoil to ensure soil weights were comparable over time. SOC has remained almost constant in the unfertilized plot, at the equilibrium level for this farming system on this soil type. Inorganic fertilizer (N3PK) has enhanced SOC a little, probably due to increased returns of organic matter in crop roots and above-ground crop residues. The treatment given FYM (35 t ha-1) since 1843 now contains almost three times as much SOC as the unfertilized plot. Increases due to FYM were greatest in the initial years of the experiment. The same trends can be seen in the FYM treatments that started in 1885 and 1968.

CROPPING AND TREATMENTS

Continuous wheat: Wheat grown every year since autumn 1843, except when parts of the experiment were fallowed to control weeds. The experiment was divided into 10 sections in 1968; data shown are mean of sections 1, 6 and 9, which are those sections in continuous wheat (except for occasional fallow). In other sections, not included in this chart, wheat is grown in rotation with other crops.

Nil: Plot 3 - No fertilizer or manure applied since 1852.
PK: Plot 5- PKMg applied since 1852.
N3PK: Plot 8 - PKMg + 144 kgN ha -1 applied since 1852.
FYM since 1843: Plot 2.1 - 35 t ha -1 of farmyard manure applied since 1843.
FYM since 1885 + N since 1968: Plot 2.2 - 35 t ha -1 of farmyard manure since 1885 plus 96 kgN ha -1 since 1968, plus 144 kgN ha -1 since 2005.
FYM+N 1968-2000; N4 since 2001: Plot 1 - 35 t ha -1 of farmyard manure 1968-2000 only, plus PK + 96 kgN ha -1 1968 -1984, plus PK + 192 kgN ha -1 1985-2000, 192 kgN only since 2001.


AGRONOMIC PRACTICES

Fallowing: Between 1926 and 1967 the experiment was divided into five sections which were bare fallowed sequentially one year in five to control weeds. Wheat was grown in the other four years.
Liming: Lime (calcium carbonate, often referred to as chalk) has been applied since the 1950s to maintain soil pH at a level which does not limit yield.
Herbicides: Herbicides were introduced in 1964; previously weeds were controlled by hand-hoeing or by fallowing and cultivation.
Modern cultivars: Modern short-strawed, high-yielding cultivars since 1968.
Fungicides: spring and summer fungicides as necessary since 1978

Keywords

Broadbalk long-term experiment
Long-term experiments
Soil
Soil organic carbon
Farmyard manure

Further information

For further information about the experiment see Broadbalk Winter Wheat Experiment and the key references below. For further information about the fertilizer treatments see Broadbalk Fertilizer Treatments (pdf). For further information about the soil, including site details and soil weights, see Broadbalk Soils.

Further details can be obtained from the e-RA curators and the Rothamsted Guide to the Classical Experiments (2006), pp 8-18.

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Key References

2018

2016

2012

2009

2006

1996

1993

1990

1983

1969

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