e-RA: the electronic Rothamsted Archive

Broadbalk open access data

Cirsium arvense frequency on Broadbalk Section 8 1991-2018

Access and use conditions

Creative Commons License This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License.

You are free to re-use this data but you must cite as: Rothamsted Research (2019), Cirsium arvense frequency on Broadbalk Section 8 1991-2018. Electronic Rothamsted Archive https://doi.org/10.23637/bbk-2078416917-01

Download the Data

This dataset, frequencies of Cirsium arvense per plot, is presented as a downloadable file:

Frequencies of Cirsium arvense Broadbalk Section 8 1991-2018 (xlsx)

Frequencies of Cirsium arvense Broadbalk Section 8 1991-2018 (csv)

and, additionlly, as a dataset including fertiliser treatments:

Frequencies of Cirsium arvense & fertiliser treatments on Broadbalk Section 8 1991-2018 (xlsx)

Frequencies of Cirsium arvense & fertiliser treatments on Broadbalk Section 8 1991-2018 (csv)

Publication Date

Publication date V1. 2019/10/01
Last updated V1. 2019/10/01

Rothamsted relies on the integrity of users to ensure that Rothamsted Research receives suitable acknowledgment as being the originators of these data. This enables us to monitor the use of each dataset and to demonstrate their value. Please send us a link to any publication that uses this Rothamsted data.


This dataset consists of the relative frequencies of Cirsium arvense (Creeping thistle) of the Family Asteraceae recorded on Section 8 plots of the Broadbalk Wheat Experiment, 1991-2018. Section 8 has not received any herbicides in its history.

The collective weed fauna, and frequency of each species such as C. arvense, vary in response to fertiliser treatments which vary with each plot (see Supporting Information below).


Data are presented as relative frequencies of Cirsium arvense from Section 8 the Broadbalk Wheat Experiment, Rothamsted Research, Harpenden, Herts, AL5 2JQ, UK. Data is given for all plots (2.1, 2.2, 3, 5, 6, 7, 8, 9, 10, 11, 12, 13, 14, 17, 18 and 19), from 1991-2018 (with the exception of 1994, 2001, 2008 2015 and 2016 when the section was fallowed). The maximum frequency per plot is 25 (see Supporting Information; Plant Assessment)

Supporting Information


The assessment method records the presence of individual weed species in 25 random quadrats (0.1m2) per plot. Each year all 18 plots were surveyed meaning 450 quadrats are assessed per year, usually in June. Frequencies refer to the total number of quadrats in which the species is recorded, the maximum being 25 per plot and 450 across all plots in the section. See Broadbalk Weeds for further details.


The treatments comprise various combinations of the following;

Broadbalk fertiliser treatments: The plots are treated with a combination of fertiliser and manure treatments.


Broadbalk plan: The field experiment layout showing sections & plots.

Provenance & Quality

This subset of data of this single species, C. arvense, are derived from the e-RA database dataset BKWEEDS_PLOT. This complete dataset consists of records of all species of weeds recorded in section 8. This data is recorded & provided by staff of the Weed Ecology Group, Rothamsted Research.

Key Reference

Further information is available in the Rothamsted Guide to the Classical Experiments (2018), p 15-16

The review paper by Moss et al (2004), provides a summary of weed surveys on broadbalk; Moss, S. R. , Storkey, J. , Cussans, J. W. , Perryman, S. A. M. and Hewitt, M. V. (2004) "The Broadbalk long-term experiment at Rothamsted: what has it told us about weeds?", Weed Science, 52, 864-873


Agricultural statistics
Broadbalk long-term experiment

Cirsium arvense
Long-term experiments
Rothamsted Research
Statistical data


Sarah Perryman


Rothamsted Research.

Further Information and contact details

For further information about the Broadbalk experiment, how the plots have been managed and other data available from e-RA, see Broadbalk.

Please contact the e-RA Curators for an access password to the complete dataset or further details.

e-RA Curators,
Department of Computational and Analytical Sciences (CAS)
Rothamsted Research
Harpenden, Herts, AL5 2JQ

email: era@rothamsted.ac.uk


The Long-term Experiments and weather stations are supported by the Lawes Agricultural Trust and BBSRC National Capability Funding (BBS/E/C/000J0300) recognising the national and international importance of the data.

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